This site reflects the work of:

the SCS Technical Committee on M&S Body of Knowledge Index (Tiger Team) founded in 2016 with the authorization of Prof. Lin Zhang, the then President of the SCS (The Society for Modeling & Simulation International)

updated by Dr. Tuncer Ören : 2017-11-07
ISO 8601: (yyyy-mm-dd)

Please share your views with all members of the Tiger Team. For any addition/correction, please contact Dr. Tuncer Ören.

  • The members of the Committee (at SCS website)
  • The basic agreement to develop the M&S Body of Knowledge Index
  • Messages to the members of the Technical Committee
  • Part 1 Status:✓ is under scrutiny [2017-04-19 –✓ Part 2 – only highest level of its structure is under scrutiny [2017-05-25 –


Part 1. Background: Preliminary, Terminology, Comprehensive View of M&S Part 2. M&SBOK: Core Areas

Part 3. M&SBOK: Supporting Domains

Part 4. References: M&S Portals, M&S Blogs, Google News on Simulation
References by Authors, Application Areas, Topics


Part 1. Background

1.1 Preliminary
1.2 Terminology
1.3 Comprehensive View of M&S


1.1 Preliminary

1.1.1 Recommendations by Members of the Technical Committee

1.1.2 Some Vision Quotations

1.1.3 High level Recognition of M&S US Congressional Modeling and Simulation Caucus US House Resolution 487 (introduced by Rep. Forbes, J. Randy [R-VA-4] 2007 June 14)

1.1.4 Stakeholders and Possible Interests for M&SBOK M&S Associations and Organizations For a comprehensive World Medical Simulation Centre Database click here then select the region on the map (Maintained by BMSC – Bristol Medical Simulation Centre)) Individuals, Certified Simulationists Workforce Development Professional Certification for CMSP (Certified Modeling and Simulation Professional) designation: M&SPCC – M&S Professional Certification Commission

1.1.5 Professional Concerns
(Professionalism, Achievements, Progress, and Challenges) Why an M&SBOK? Rationale and Possible Usages – Some Views BOK studies in other disciplines

1.1.6 M&SBOK Early Studies Tuncer Ören’s publications and activities on MSBOK

1.1.7 Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Development Original taxonomy Revised taxonomy and competency levels Three domains of learning Terminology changes and why use Bloom’s taxonomy (M. Forehand, University of Georgia)

1.1 Terminology

1.1.1 Background: Definitions of “Definition”

1.1.2 Definitions of simulation: Ören, T.I. (2011). The Many Facets of Simulation through a Collection of about 100 Definitions. SCS M&S Magazine, 2:2 (April), pp. 82- Stakeholders and Possible Interests for M&S BOK Ören, T.I. (2011). A Critical Review of Definitions and About 400 Types of Mode and Simulation. SCS M&S Magazine, 2:3 (July), pp. 142-151.

1.2.3 Collections of Special Terms An Inventory of over 8400 M&S Terms (Currently, the list that I maintain has over 12 500 terms) Terms and Concepts Related with Similarity

1.2.4 M&S Dictionaries

1.2.5 Ontology-Based Dictionaries Ontology-Based Dictionary of V&V (rationale and an example) Ontology-Based Dictionary of Understanding

1.3 Comprehensive View of M&S

1.3.1 Challenges and Benefits of a Comprehensive and Consolidated View of M&S

1.3.2 Different perspectives

1.3.3 Domain-independent Application Areas

1.3.4 Tuncer Ören’s publications and activities

1.3.5 Other publications and activities

1.3.6 Select articles: Ören, T.I. (2010). Simulation and Reality: The Big Picture. (Invited paper for the inaugural issue) International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing (of the Chinese Association for System Simulation – CASS) by the World Scientific Publishing Co. China. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-25. (Based on the keynote speech of the 2009 International Simulation Multiconference of SCS and SISO, July 13- 16, 2009, Istanbul, Turkey. (Presentation) Ören, T.I. (2009). Modeling and Simulation: A Comprehensive and Integrative View. In L. Yilmaz and T.I. Ören (eds.). Agent-Directed Simulation and Systems Engineering. Wiley Series in Systems Engineering and Management, Wiley-Berlin, Germany, pp. 3-36. Ören, T.I. (2007). The Importance of a Comprehensive and Integrative View of Modeling and Simulation. Proceedings of the Summer Simulation Conference. San Diego, CA, July 15-18, ’07.

Part 2. M&S BOK Core Areas

2.1 Science / Methodology
2.2 Types of simulation
2.3 Life cycles of M&S
2.4 Technology
2.5 Infrastructure
2.6 Reliability
2.7 Ethics
2.8 History
2.9 Trends, Challenges, and Desirable Features
2.10 Enterprise
2.11 Maturity

2.1 Science / Methodology

2.1 Data

Issues (types of data and terms related with data) (over 260 terms) Variables (types of variables and terms related with variables) (over 160 terms)

Input Variables (types of inputs and terms related with inputs) (over 110 terms) Values (types of values and terms related with values) (over 90 terms)

2.2.2 Models & Modeling Formalisms Models (types of models and terms related with models) (over 1100 terms) Issues: Reusability, Interoperability, Composability, Dynamic composability Conceptual models and Conceptual modeling Model Building

Model composition (and dynamic model composition) Model-base Management

Model search, semantic model search Model integrity Model Parameters and Parameter-base Management

Parameters, Auxiliary parameters
Deterministic parameters, Stochastic parameters Model Behavior (Main issues related with model behavior)
(types of model behavior and terms related with behavior)
(over 120 terms) Types of Model Behavior
Generation of Model Behavior

Processing of Model Behavior (Analytical, Statistical) Visualization of Model Behavior (3-D, animation) Model Characterization (Descriptive model analysis) for Model comprehensibility

Model documentation (static and dynamic documentations)

Model ventilation (to examine its assumptions, deficiencies, limitations, etc.) for Model usability

Model referability Model Evaluation (Evaluative Model Analysis) Model evaluation with respect to:

A Modeling Formalism (Consistency of model representation) Evaluation of:

(Static structure of: component models, Coupled models, Models of system of systems)

(Dynamic structure of: state transitions, Output function(s), Structural change, Dynamic coupling)

Model robustness

Another Model (Model Comparison) Structural model comparison

Model verification (Types of and techniques and tools for model verification)

Model checking (for homomorphism, isomorphism, endomorphism)

Model equivalencing

Behavioral model comparison (under same or different scenarios)

Real System (For Analysis Problems)

Technical System Specifications (For Design and Control Problems)

Model qualification (model realism, model adequacy, model correctness analysis) Model validity

(Types of and techniques and tools for model validity)

Goal of the Study

Model relevance (domain of intended application(s); range of applicability of a model) Model Transformation
Types of model transformation (copying, reduction, pruning, simplification, elaboration, isomorphism, homomorphism, endomorphism)

2.2.3 Experimentation (Main issues related with experimentation) (types of experimentation and terms related with experimentation) (over 100 terms)

Statistical Design of Experiments

Computer-Aided Systems for Design of Experiments Computer-Aided Systems for Execution of Experiments Data compression techniques (deterministic, stochastic)

Analysis of simulation data

2.2.4 Experience (Main issues related with experience) (types of simulation-based experiences and related terms)

Experience for skill development (training)

Motor skills
Decision making skills
Operational skill Experience for entertainment

    2.2 Types of Simulations (types of simulation and terms related with simulation) (over 850 term For over 500 types of simulation, see the appendix of the article at: link

    2.3 Types of Simulators

    2.4 Life Cycles of M&S

    for Experimentation

    to Gain Experience

    to Gain Experience for Training to enhance motor skills (virtual simulation: simulators, virtual simulators)

    to Gain Experience for Training to enhance: decision-making and communication skills (constructive simulation – serious games: business gaming, war gaming, peace gaming)

    to Gain Experience for Training to enhance: operational skills (live simulation)

    for Entertainment (simulation games)

    2.5 Life Cycles of Simulators

    2.6 Technology

    M&S languages

    M&S tools and environments

    Computer-Aided Problem Solving Environments (for Modeling, Model Processing, Program Generation, Experimentation, and Problem Solving)


    2.7 Infrastructure


    Code of Best Practice Lessons Learned Resource Repositories

    2.8 Reliability & QA of M&S and types of:

    Errors (types of errors and terms related with errors) (over 200 terms) Validation (types of validation and terms related with validation) (over 50 terms) Verification (types of verification and terms related with verification)

    Built-in Quality Assurance Failure Avoidance

    Avoidance of AI errors
    Avoidance of Dysrationalia
    Avoidance of Cognitive biases

    2.9 Ethics

    (at SCS) (at Tuncer Ören’s site)

    2.10 History

    2.11 Trends, Challenges, and Desirable Features

    2.12 Enterprise

    Business practice:

    Economics of M&S: SISOBill Waite

    Enterprise infrastructure

    2.13 Maturity of

    Individuals Organizations

    Educational programs (individual courses, as well as undergraduate and graduate degree programs and professional development seminars)


    Part 3. M&S BOK: Supporting Domains (Independent of the Application Areas)

    3.1 Computers and Computation
    3.2 Supporting Science Areas
    3.3 Supporting Engineering Areas
    3.4 Supporting Management Areas
    3.5 Education

    3.1 Computers and Computation

    Impact of Computers

    Digital, hybrid, analog; mobile, cloud

    Extreme scale computers (petascale simulation, exascale simulation)

    Computing and M&S

    Fuzzy logic and simulation

    Neural networks and simulation Synergies of Artificial Intelligence & M&S Agent-Directed 


    Agent-based models

    Agent simulation (and agent-initiated simulation)

    Agent-supported simulation

    Agent-monitored simulation

    3.2 Supporting Science Areas

    Systems Science (a historic ref by Ören & Zeigler) Physics

    Mathematics (Differential Equations, Numerical Analysis, Probability, Statistics) Queuing Theory

    3.3 Supporting Engineering Areas
    Systems Engineering Visualization

    3.4 Supporting Management Areas

    Enterprise Management Project Management Product Management

    3.5 Education


      Part 4. References

      M&S Portals Social Network M&S Blogs

      Google News on Simulation

      References by Authors References by Application Areas References by Topics including:

      Body of Knowledge

      BOK of Other Areas
      M&SBOK – Early Studies & Other Contributions
      M&SBOK – Recent Contributions
      Dr. Tuncer Ören’s publications and activities on M&SBOK


      Master Plans
      Conceptual Models

      M&S &

      Systems Engineering
      Simulation Professionals & Needed Qualifications